Séminaire Mortaza Taheri-Ardali

Séminaire

Mortaza Taheri-Ardali

(Shahrekord University, Iran & Universität zu Köln, Germany)

Analysing the prosody of native speakers of Persian in L1 and L2 (English) using the OMProDat corpus

Vendredi 9 décembre 2022, 10h30-12h

LPL, salle de conférences B011

Résumé :
After a brief presentation of our current knowledge of the prosody of the Persian language, this talk focuses on the findings from a bilingual Persian-English prosodic database read by native Persian speakers as part of the OMProDat project. This corpus contains 40 continuous and thematically-connected passages each with five sentences. The collection was read by 5 male and 5 female Persian speakers. Moreover, the ASCII phonetic alphabet SAMPA was used to romanize and phonetically transcribe the Persian sentences. The database includes TextGrid annotations obtained semi-automatically for two speakers (1 male and 1 female) from the sound and the orthographic transcription using the SPPAS alignment software. Then, this part of the corpus was annotated prosodically using the Momel and INTSINT algorithms. Preliminary results of this analysis will be reported in this talk. Using this substantial amount of data, we intend to conduct a cross-linguistic comparison with other languages in OMProDat.


Références :
Boersma, P., & Weenink, D. (2021). Praat: doing phonetics by computer [Computer program]. Version 6.1.55, retrieved October 2021 from http://www.praat.org/.
Bigi, B., & Hirst, D. J. (2012, May 22-25). SPeech Phonetization Alignment and Syllabification (SPPAS): a tool for the automatic analysis of speech prosody. Speech Prosody 2012, Shanghai, China.
Bigi, B. (2015). SPPAS - Multi-lingual Approaches to the Automatic Annotation of Speech. The Phonetician - International Society of Phonetic Sciences. 111-112, 54-69.
Ding, H., Hirst, D. J. & Hoffmann, R. (2015, Oct 28-30). Cross-linguistic prosodic comparison with OMProDat database. 18th Oriental COCOSDA & Conference on Asian Spoken Language Research and Evaluation (O-COCOSDA/CASLRE), Shanghai, China.
Hirst, D. J., Bigi, B., Cho, H.-S., Ding, H., Herment, S., Wang, T. (2013) Building OMProDat, an open multilingual prosodic database. TRASP, Tools and Resources for the Analysis of Speech Prosody [satellite workshop of Interspeech], Aix-en-Provence, France. Hirst, D. J. (2007, Aug 6-10). A Praat plugin for Momel and INTSINT with improved algorithms for modelling and coding intonation. 16th International Conference of Phonetic Sciences, Saarbrücken, Germany.
Hirst, D. J. (2013, Aug 25-29). Melody metrics for prosodic typology: comparing English, French and Chinese. Interspeech 2013, Lyon, France. Hirst, D. J. (2016, May 31 - June 3). On the automatic comparison and cloning of native and non-native speech prosody. Speech Prosody 2016, Boston, USA. Hirst, D. J. (2021, Oct 20-21). Automatic visual and auditory feedback for second language (L2) speech prosody [Keynote]. The 2nd International Conference on Laboratory Phonology and Phonetics (ICLPP 2), Tehran, Iran.
Keshtiari, N., Kuhlmann, M., Eslami, M., & Klann-Delius, G. (2015). Recognizing emotional speech in Persian: A validated database of Persian emotional speech (Persian ESD). Behav Res 47, 275-294. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-014-0467-x.
Mohamad Nezami, O., Jamshid Lou, P. & Karami, M. (2019). ShEMO: a large-scale validated database for Persian speech emotion detection. Lang Resources & Evaluation 53, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10579-018-9427-x. Taheri-Ardali, M., Hirst, D. (2022). Building a Persian-English OMProDat database read by Persian speakers. Speech Prosody 2022, Lisbon, Portugal.
Taheri-Ardali, M., Khorram, S., Assi, M., Sameti, H., & Bijankhan, M. (2016). Designing and recording a speech database for Persian TTS systems. Iranian Journal of Comparative Linguistic Research, 6, 69-84, 2016.

Page Web institutionnelle de M. Taheri-Ardali

Séminaire Snizhana Holyk

Séminaire

Snizhana Holyk

(Uzhhorod National University)

Conceptualisation of old age in English : Interdisciplinary perspective

Vendredi 4 novembre 2022, 10h30-12h

LPL, salle de conférences B011

 

Résumé :

In the present study, I aim to analyse cultural and social constructions of old age and the aged in English. Drawing on the thesis about the interrelation between language and culture, I hypothesize that the concept old age in English is verbalized by a set of socially and culturally loaded representations. This research adopts a cognitive-semantic approach when meaning is defined as conceptualization. It aims at revealing the notional content of the concept old age in English with the focus on the definitions of the lexeme ‘old age’ in present-day lexicographical sources (both printed and on-line). Firstly, the concept of old age as a mental unit and complex knowledge cluster is analysed, its nominative field is defined. It appears to be a multicomponent structure representing the period or time in life when one is old, the person or the group of persons who are old and the state or condition of being old. Secondly, I will highlight the definitions of old age in English and compare different discursive models of ageing conceptualisation. Old age as a social phenomenon is usually defined through the prism of its medico-biological and socio-philosophical characteristics as a final stage of human life with considerable physiological and psychological changes leading to little involvement of a person in social activities. However, the demographic processes of the recent decades have resulted in radical changes in old age delimitation, when it gets measured not only within chronometric framework, but also by sociocultural criteria. Old age as a cultural phenomenon is different from the chronological age, as it is characterized by vague boundaries, the interaction between different age stages, and deviations from their logical order. Furthermore, adopting the interdisciplinary research perspective, the study reveals discursive models of old age conceptualization, providing the description of the new reality of old age not only as a biological phenomenon, but also as a social construct with a complex cognitive structure represented in discourse with normative, axiological, stereotypical, figurative and symbolic components. Moreover, the paper gives insight into the metaphorical conceptualization of old age in the literary discourse and authors’ creative associations about this stage of life.

Key words: old age concept, ageing, conceptualisation, conceptual metaphor, discourse analysis, interdisciplinary approach.

Séminaire Leonor Becerra & Philippe Blache

Programme :

10h30 - 11h15 Leonor Becerra (LPL/AMU)

Multimodal learning: bringing together natural language acquisition and machine learning

I will briefly present my main research activities, which are in the intersection of linguistics and computer science. My goal has been to develop computational systems that learn to understand and speak natural languages from multimodal data, inspired in the way children learn their native language. I will also present applications of my work to solve Natural Language Processing tasks and ongoing research projects that involve the integration of a larger set of multimodal cues than the one I used so far in my research.

11h15 - 12h Philippe Blache (LPL/CNRS)

Prédiction, retardement, chunking: les mécanismes permettant d'expliquer la compréhension en conversation

Comment accède-t-on au sens ? La plupart des expériences abordant cette question, que ce soit en linguistique, en neurosciences ou en psycholinguistique, portent sur des mots ou des phrases isolés. Ces études permettent de décrire avec précision les mécanismes à l'œuvre, y compris au niveau du cerveau. Cependant, elles reposent toutes sur une hypothèse forte : celle de la compositionnalité, stipulant que le sens d'une phrase est une fonction du sens de ses constituants et se construit donc progressivement  en partant de mots, agrégés en constituants supérieurs avant de composer la structure d'une phrase. Cette hypothèse se double de plus d'une méthode de construction, reposant sur un mapping direct entre structure syntaxique et structure sémantique (Montague, 1973; Dowty, 2006). Il existe cependant un grand nombre de cas où la compositionnalité ne permet pas d'expliquer l'accès au sens: de nombreuses constructions (ditransitivité, idiomes, etc.) montrent qu'il existe également une possibilité d'accès direct au sens, non pas en partant des mots, mais en reconnaissant globalement un "pattern" (Construction Grammars : Goldberg, 2015). De plus, de nombreuses expériences montrent également que nous sommes capables d'accéder au sens à l'aide d'un traitement  superficiel (Good-enough Theory : Ferreira et Patson., 2007), voire de reconstituer le sens à partir d'une entrée syntaxiquement ou sémantiquement mal construite (Semantic attraction : Kim & Osterhout, 2005). A ce jour, il n'existe pas de modèle neuro-cognitif permettant de décrire la coexistence de ces phénomènes et d'une façon plus générale permettant d'expliquer l'accès au sens au delà de la phrase, dans des situations naturelles (typiquement des conversations).

Je propose de présenter dans cet exposé les bases d'un tel modèle. Il repose sur l'hypothèse que la mémoire déclarative contient non seulement les informations relatives aux mots, mais également à ces "patterns" (ou constructions). La compréhension repose donc principalement non pas sur un mécanisme séquentiel, incrémental et cumulatif (un traitement mot par mot,) mais de façon plus globale grâce à un double mécanisme de retardement et de segmentation en chunks et associés à la prédictibilité du langage. Je présenterai de façon plus précise comment ces hypothèses permettent de généraliser le modèle "Memory, Unification and Control" (Hagoort, 2013), rendant compte des aspects linguistiques, cognitifs et cérébraux de l'accès au sens en situation naturelle.

Dowty, D. (2006) "Compositionality as an Empirical Problem", in Direct Compositionality, Barker C. & Jacobson P. (eds), Oxford University Press
Ferreira, F. & Patson N. (2007) "The ‘Good Enough’ Approach to Language Comprehension", Language and Linguistics Compass 1, 1‑2
Goldberg, A. (2015) "Compositionality". In The Routledge Handbook of Semantics, Taylor and Francis Inc..
Hagoort, P. (2013) "MUC (Memory, Unification, Control) and beyond", Frontiers in Psychology, 4
Kim, A. & Osterhout, L. (2005) "The independence of combinatory semantic processing: Evidence from event-related potentials", Journal of Memory and Language, 52(2)

Séminaire Francesca Di Garbo

Séminaire

Francesca Di Garbo

(LPL/AMU)

La diversité linguistique et ses corrélats socio-culturels : études de cas, méthodes et perspectives de recherche

21 octobre 2022, à 10h30 en salle B011 au LPL et en ligne via Zoom

(Merci de nous contacter pour obtenir l'adresse Zoom)

 

Résumé :

Ce séminaire a comme objectif de présenter mes activités de recherche et les replacer dans le contexte général des recherches en cours au sein de l’équipe SystUs et du laboratoire.

Mes recherches portent sur la diversité linguistique, sa distribution dans l’espace et le temps et ses corrélats non-linguistiques (par exemple, sociaux, environnementaux). Les deux thématiques les plus centrales dans mes travaux récents sont la typologie morphosyntaxique et le développement des méthodes visant à intégrer la typologie linguistique et la sociolinguistique (typologie sociolinguistique).

Dans le cadre de mes recherches en typologie morphosyntaxique, je présenterai deux études de cas sur les systèmes d’accord en genre grammatical dans un échantillon de 179 langues bantoues du Nord-Ouest, et sur les facteurs morphosyntaxiques, sémantiques et sociohistoriques qui peuvent expliquer leur distribution et évolution dans cette région d’Afrique.

Dans le cadre de mes travaux en typologie sociolinguistique, je présenterai un nouveau programme de recherche pour l’étude comparative des changements langagiers dus au contact, qui a été développé à l’université d’Helsinki au sein du projet GramAdapt (https://www.helsinki.fi/en/researchgroups/linguistic-adaptation). Une nouvelle technique d’échantillonnage typologique et un nouveau questionnaire sociolinguistique ont été développés au sein de ce projet afin de mener des études comparatives sur les dynamiques de contact entre communautés voisines et plurilingues, ainsi que sur l’impact potentiel de ces contacts sur les structures langagières. L’efficacité de ces nouveaux outils sera illustrée à l’aide de quelques résultats préliminaires des recherches encore en cours.

 

Visite de Markus Syring de l’Université Tübingen : Heterogeneity in Research and Practice: Perspectives of the School Pedagogy

Séminaire

Markus Syring

(Université de Tübingen)

Heterogeneity in Research and Practice: Perspectives of the School Pedagogy

LPL, salle de conférences B011 à 10h30 & en ligne via Zoom

(Merci de nous contacter pour obtenir l’adresse Zoom)

Résumé :
The topic of heterogeneity not only plays an important role in schools and teaching in German-speaking countries, it is also being researched worldwide. The special view that is taken in the presentation refers to cultural, social and performance-related diversity in the classroom. The school pedagogy makes a genuine contribution to pedagogical professionalism in dealing with heterogeneity for (future) teachers. Therefore, in the short presentation, some perspectives of school pedagogy on the topic will be presented and documented with own research.

Séminaire Jorina Brysbaert

A corpus analysis of contrastive subjects in different registers of French: from discourse and syntax to prosody

Jorina Brysbaert

(Research Foundation – Flanders & KU Leuven)

Séminaire Interactions Multimodales Par ECran (IMPEC)

Vendredi 17 juin 2022

Séminaire

Interaction Multimodales Par Ecrans (IMPEC)

9h30-16h LPL, salle de conférences B011

Il accueillera Serge Bouchardon (UTC Compiègne) pour une conférence sur "Les récits interactifs".

Si vous souhaitez suivre le séminaire (en présence ou à distance), merci d’envoyer un courriel à christelle.COMBE@univ-amu.fr.

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Séminaire ILCB : Bharath Chandrasekaran

Séminaire ILCB

Bharath Chandrasekaran

Neural systems underlying auditory categorization 

Abstract: My program of research uses a systems neuroscience approach to study the computations, maturational constraints, and plasticity underlying behaviorally relevant auditory signals like speech. Speech signals are multidimensional, acoustically variable, and temporally ephemeral. A significant computational challenge in speech perception (and more broadly, audition) is categorization, that is, mapping continuous, multidimensional, and variable acoustic signals into discrete, behavioral equivalence classes. Despite the enormity of this computational challenge, native speech perception is rapid and automatic. In contrast, learning novel speech categories is effortful. In this talk, I elucidate mechanisms underlying how novel speech categories are acquired and represented in the mature brain. I will demonstrate that (1) neural representations of novel speech categories can arise in the associative auditory cortex within a few hundred training trials of sound-to-category training, (2) pre-attentive signal reconstruction in the early auditory system is subject to experience-dependent plasticity, and (3) the robustness of structural and functional connectivity within a sound-to-reward cortico-striatal stream relates to learning outcome. Finally, I will discuss ongoing experiments that leverage neurobiology to design optimal behavioral training and targeted neuromodulation interventions.

About the speaker: Dr. Chandrasekaran serves as a Professor and Vice Chair of Research in the Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders at The University of Pittsburgh. He earned his Ph.D. in Integrative Neuroscience from Purdue University in 2008, completed a postdoctoral fellowship at Northwestern University before joining the University of Texas at Austin in 2010. He is the recipient of Regents’ Outstanding Teaching Award in 2014, the Editor’s award for best research article in the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, the Psychonomics Early Career award in 2016, and the Society for Neurobiology of Language Early Career Award in 2018. Dr. Chandrasekaran has served as the Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research (Speech). Over the last two decades, his lab has leveraged cutting-edge multimodal neuroimaging methods and computational modeling approaches to develop a sophisticated understanding of how sounds are represented and categorized in the human brain. His approach is highly collaborative and interdisciplinary, integrating across fields of communication sciences and disorders, neuroscience, linguistics, psychology, engineering, and otolaryngology. His laboratory is currently supported by funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the National Science Foundation (NSF).