Jury: Pierre ESCUDE, Université de Bordeaux – Director
Sandrine CADDÉO, Aix-Marseille Université
Jean Claude BEACCO, Université Sorbonne nouvelle
Elisabetta BONVINO, Università Roma Tre
Laurent GAJO, Université de Genève
Sandra GARBARINO BENAZZO, Università degli Studi di Torino
This thesis explores two lines of research framed within the usage-based constructionist paradigm. On one side, we investigate how to ground the semantic content of constructions in language use; we propose integrating vector representations used in Distributional Semantic Models into linguistic descriptions of Construction Grammar.
Besides, we address a still open question: What cognitive and linguistic principles govern language comprehension? Considerable evidence suggests that interpretation alternates compositional-incremental- and noncompositional(global) strategies. Although it is recognized that idioms are fast to process, we claim that even literal expressions, if frequent enough, are processed similarly. Using the Self-Paced Reading paradigm, we tested reading times of idiomatic and literal high-frequent and low-frequent verb-noun phrases; facilitation eﬀects also occur when reading frequent and yet compositional expressions.
Concurrently, we claim that systematic processes of language productivity are mainly explainable by analogical inferences rather than sequential compositional operations: novel expressions are produced and understood “on the fly” by analogy with familiar ones. As the compositionality principle has been used to generate distributional representations of phrases, we propose a neural network simulating the construction of phrasal embedding as an analogical process. Our ANNE, inspired by word2vec and computer vision techniques, was evaluated on its ability to generalize from existing vectors.
Overall, we hope this work could clarify the complex literature on language comprehension and pave the way for new experimental and computational studies.
This thesis focuses on smiles in thematic transitions of conversations. These moments of negotiation between two themes particularly involve the collaboration of the participants. We have thus studied the role of smiles as ressources of this collaboration. Smiles are very frequent facial expressions but have not been studied in their relation to the organization of the interaction. In parallel, we studied the effect of the interactants’ relationship on this collaboration. To explore these issues, 40 interactions from two corpora (CHEESE! and PACO) were studied. In the first corpus, the participants know each other well, while in the second they met for the first time on the day of the recording. Smiles of the interactants were annotated according to the Smiling Intensity Scale. Thanks to the automatic smile detection tool SMAD, developed for the purpose of this thesis, we conducted a fine-grained analysis of the deployment of the three smile intensities. Our analyses consisted in articulating two complementary approaches: those of Conversational Analysis and Interactional Linguistics via sequential analyses as well as the approach of Corpus Linguistics which consisted in quantitatively interrogating our data. This methodology allowed us to identify three main results concerning transitions in relation to random moments in the conversations studied. (1) The phases of transitions are characterized by specific processes, some of which are invariant regardless of the relationship of the participants. (2) When the speaker initiates a new topic, a suppression of the smile is more frequently observed. (3) When the addressee accepts the thematic proposal, he is more inclined to increase his smile intensity. This thesis shows that the smile is a resource mobilized by the interactants when they make thematic transitions. For this reason, this thesis is in line with the work arguing for the inclusion of the smile as a resource to be taken into account in the multimodal analysis of interactions.
This thesis is based on the “embodied cognition” approach which considers memory as a unique multiple traces system, which simulates the sensorimotor and emotional components of past experiences to form memories and knowledge (Barsalou 2003, 2008). The aim is to know if the elderlies activate the motor component when they access knowledge and, when the motor component was activated, if the subsequent recognition of this knowledge was facilitated. Three experiments involving two experimental groups of elderlies living in nursing homes and suffering from neurodegenerative pathologies (group 1 – average age 75 years and group 2, average age 90 years) as well as a control group living at home (average age 75 years) were conducted. Two experiments using a sensorimotor priming paradigm were proposed to examine the effect of motor and taxonomic priming on the categorization task (motor and categorization).
The stimuli were object pictures (utensils and tools). The results show that the motor priming effect (the prime and the target imply a similar gesture of use) is preserved in the three groups. Since prime and target were visual stimuli, the effect of motor priming is due to the simulated motor component. There was also a taxonomic priming effect, but it remains dependent on motor priming and the aim of task. In the third experiment, participants studied the material (pictures of kitchen utensils and tools) in three different conditions: taxonomic, motor, and perceptual. The results show that the benefit of the motor processing during study was present at recognition for all subjects.
Thus, our work suggests that the simulation of the motor component remains preserved in “normal” and “pathological” aging.
Émergence et de médiatisation des controverses sociales à l’ère des réseaux socionumériques. Le cas de Bois Blanc (La Réunion) et de Tim Hunt (Grande-Bretagne)
Romain Badouard (Univ. Paris II, Panthéon-Assas) Nicole D’Almeida (Celsa, Univ. Paris-Sorbonne) Fidelia Ibekwe (Co-director, LPL-AMU) Bernard Idelson (Director, Univ. de La Réunion) Alain Kiyindou (Univ. Bordeaux-Montaigne) Manuel Zacklad (CNAM)
Cette thèse examine la manière dont les controverses sociales émergent et sont rendues publiques par les médias établis au prisme des réseaux socionumériques (RSN). Pour ce faire, nous avons entrepris une analyse de deux cas de controverses sociales : l’une, d’une ampleur médiatique locale, concerne une opposition de riverains contre un projet d’exploitation de carrière à La Réunion, l’autre, au rayonnement médiatique international, porte sur un mouvement pro-féministe à l’encontre des propos tenus par un scientifique britannique. La thèse mobilise cinq approches communicationnelles et sociologiques à savoir la médiation sociotechnique, les approches de la visibilité, la sociologie des problèmes publics, l’approche transplateforme et l’approche technodiscursive. Notre recherche repose sur une méthode d’analyse mixte, à dominante qualitative, d’entretiens semi-directifs et de traces numériques. Elle combine une analyse qualitative du contenu et du (techno)discours et une analyse quantitative lexicale et thématique du corpus de tweets et des articles d’information. Les principaux résultats démontrent que l’objet de revendication des groupes contestataires conditionne la dynamique des frontières numériques. D’autre part, la stratégie des acteurs, l’exploitation de leur capital relationnel et la configuration technique du RSN sont parties prenantes dans l’émergence et le maintien la mobilisation. Par ailleurs, nous constatons que les journalistes contrôlent l’accès à la scène médiatique après la phase d’émergence de la controverse. Enfin, les controverses sociales ne peuvent se départir des contextes sociopolitiques dans lesquels elles évoluent.
LNC, salle des Voûtes, Campus Saint Charles, Marseille + online
(LPL / AMU)
Evaluation et rééducation des troubles de l’écriture : vers la sonification musicale de la dysgraphie dans la maladie de Parkinson
Agnès Roby-Brami (ISIR, Sorbone Univ.) Simone Dalla Bella (BRAMS, Univ. of Montreal) Mélanie Jucla (LNPL, Univ. de Toulouse) Philippe Damier (CHU de Nantes, Univ. de Nantes) Marianne Jover (PSYCLE, AMU) Serge Pinto (LPL, AMU), director Jérémy Danna (LNC, AMU), co-director
Because of its high level of automaticity, handwriting appears particularly vulnerable to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Dysgraphia in PD manifests as a significant decrease in size, velocity and fluency of movement. Designed around four studies, this thesis aimed to characterise dysgraphia in PD at behavioural and cerebral levels, and to evaluate the effect of background music and musical sonification in the rehabilitation of writing disorders. We showed that movement fluency of spatially constrained spiral production was a relevant variable to evaluate the changes induced by PD and the effects drug treatment. Also, movement velocity in signature was an interesting parameter allowing to discriminate healthy participants from patients with treatment. The use of background music showed significant effects on handwriting disorders in a young patient, whereas its potential seemed less relevant compared to that of musical sonification for dysgraphia in PD. To better understand the effect of a basal ganglia PD dysfunction on handwriting, we manipulated its sequential (succession of strokes to form letters) and spatial adaptation components (pen movement under spatial constraints) in an fMRI study. Initially performed in young participants, this study clarified the functional role of three key regions of the writing brain network: the left dorsal premotor cortex, the left superior parietal lobule and the right cerebellum.